For some reason, this behavior is due to connecting the old drive thru a USB disk case after booting the cloned one. Maybe a signature disk collision, that Windows 10 resolves identifying the system as “Windows To Go”, hence portable.
Finally, I found a page that referenced a page that referenced a page that referenced the solution.
You must change certain registry value. You can open
regedit.exe and navigate to the proper value or just run, as admin:
reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control /v PortableOperatingSystem /t REG_DWORD /d 0