For some reason, this behavior is due to connecting the old drive thru a USB disk case after booting the cloned one. Maybe a signature disk collision, that Windows 10 resolves identifying the system as “Windows To Go”, hence portable.
You must change certain registry value. You can open
regedit.exe and navigate to the proper value or just run, as admin:
reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control /v PortableOperatingSystem /t REG_DWORD /d 0